The Bionutrition Unit provides nutrition, body composition, and energy expenditure services. Bionutritionist and research kitchen staff are highly experienced and trained to assist investigators with the design and implementation of research meals, feeding studies, and related research. The Bionutrition Unit also provides a variety of energy expenditure and body composition measurement services using a range of equipment.
"Activity monitoring can be conducted using an Actical™, Actiwatch™, Actiwatch SCORE™, or pedometer. The Actical™, Actiwatch™, and Actiwatch SCORE™ calculate minute-by-minute energy expenditure by an omnidirectional accelerometer to monitor the occurrence and intensity of motion. This data is used to calculate hourly, daily, and custom interval caloric expenditure. The pedometers are used to measure step count. Activity monitoring can be collected during wake or sleep cycles."
"Bionutrition staff are trained to measure height, recumbent length, weight, body circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and skinfold thickness in the adult and pediatric populations. Special length measurements when height is not appropriate can also be performed."
"Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) uses a small electrical current to measure impedance and conductance. Results include body fat, fat-free mass, and total body water. The BIA machine uses electrodes that attach to the hand and foot. The Tanita™ scale requires a standing position without electrodes. The measurement takes approximately 30 seconds to complete. Prior to each measurement an accurate height and weight are obtained. Shoes and socks must be removed and subjects should be fasting (no foods or beverages) and limit physical activity for at least 2 hours prior to the test."
"The BOD POD™ uses air displacement plethysmography to measure body density. Results include body fat and fat-free mass as a percent and total kg of body weight. This test is optimal for obese populations with a body weight maximum of 550 lbs.
There is no radiation exposure during a BOD POD™. Subjects are required to wear swimsuits or spandex during the test and must be fasting (no foods or beverages) and limit physical activity for 2 hours prior to the test."
"OCTRI Bionutrition Unit staff are available to consult with investigators during the protocol development and design process, including selection of methodology. If assessment of food and/or supplement intake is part of a protocol, bionutritionists can recommend the best methods and procedures to meet the study goals. They can assist with protocol and consent form language. Bionutrition staff can also assist with data analysis and preparation of manuscripts." Consultation on:
- data analysis
Consultation services include:
- research meal development
- food behavior screening
- food intake assessment
- food record analysis
- food record instruction
- nutrient analysis
- nutrition education "Registered dietitian bionutritionists are trained to assess food and supplement intake for an individual, usually for the purpose of estimating intake of one or more nutrients. Several methods exist, and each has its pros and cons. Bionutritionists can help investigators select the best methodology for the participant population and study goals.
A food recall is done by gathering information about what foods (and in what amounts) have been consumed over a period of time, usually 24 hours. The overall nutritional intake is then determined using computer software. Food records are completed by the participant at home and later analyzed by a bionutritionist. Food Frequency Questionnaires ask participants to recall their intake of foods and beverages over a defined period of time, and they can be scanned for analysis."
"The Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) machine uses a small dose of radiation to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. Trained staff perform whole body, hip and spine for BMD scans in both adult and pediatric study participants.
A whole body DEXA scan takes approximately 2 minutes and requires the participant to remove all metal (in clothing and jewelry) from the body. Hip and spine scans are shorter in duration. DEXA equipment can only accommodate study participants 350 lbs or less.
DEXA scan results include total and regional (limb, trunk) body composition: bone mineral content and bone mineral density (T-Score and Z-Score) for hip and spine; total mass, fat mass, bone mass, lean mass,and percent body fat."
"Treadmill testing equipment measures volume of oxygen consumption and volume of carbon dioxide output by placing a mouthpiece or face mask over the mouth during exercise. VO2 sub-max with ECG and VO2 max with ECG are used to determine maximum heart rate, power output, caloric expenditure, and estimation of lactate threshold. Staff can devise specific testing methods to meet protocol needs."
Food preparation for study participants includes:
- Continental meals and snacks
- Hospital meals
- Recipe test
- Research meals and snacks
"The indirect calorimetry equipment measures volume of oxygen consumption and volume of carbon dioxide output by placing a plexi-glass canopy over the head in a supine position. Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) includes a 20 minute rest period followed by 30 minutes of data collection. Energy expenditure (EE) and Respiratory Quotient (RQ), a measure of relative fat vs. carbohydrate oxidation, are determined. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) can be determined with a protocol similar to the REE, involving an overnight stay the night before. Thermic effect of food (TEF) can also be determined by feeding the participant a known quantity of food and monitoring EE and RQ for an additional 6 hours. Length of measurements may vary per protocol guidelines."
"Registered dietitian bionutritionists are available to provide education and counseling to study participants individually or in a group setting. They can provide education and guidance on diet modification or diet intervention to meet study goals.
Bionutritionists can also develop protocol-specific materials to assist with the study intervention and compliance, and they are especially skilled at participant monitoring to promote compliance in long-term feeding studies."