Individuals who have a history of drug use are more impulsive than individuals who do not have such a history. My research examines whether this difference existed prior to drug use, or is a consequence of the neuroadaptations due to drug use. To address these questions, we work with human, rat and mouse subjects. For example, we examine whether different genotypes are associated with impulsive behavior by comparing impulsivity in drug-naïve selected lines and inbred strains of mice and rats. Also we examine whether different levels of impulsivity predict responses the first time mice and rats are exposed to drugs of abuse, like alcohol, nicotine and methamphetamine. Measures of impulsivity in human subjects are used to examine whether acute exposure to drugs of abuse or withdrawal form use results in changes in behavior. In addition, my research examines the basic neural processes involved in decision making, including impulsive and risky decision making, using lesion techniques and imaging.
"Historically, the 129 inbred mice are known for the high incidence of spontaneous testicular teratomas, though the incidence differs between substrains. (1-3% in 129 parental substrains; 30% in teratoma substrains.) More recently, 129 mice are widely used in the production of targeted mutations due to the availability of multiple embryonic stem cell lines derived from them. There is major genetic variation within the 129 "family", which has led to an update of the nomenclature and a division of the substrains into three major groups: parental substrains (129P), steel substrains (129S) and "teratoma" substrains (129T). Investigators using 129 substrains for targeted mutagenesis should be careful in the selection of the appropriate 129 substrain to match the embryonic stem cell line."
"Developed by LC Strong in 1921 from a cross between a Cold Spring Harbor albino and a Bagg albino, the A inbred strain is used widely used in cancer and immunology research. It is highly susceptible to induction of congenital cleft palate by cortisone. It has a high incidence of spontaneous lung adenomas and lung tumors readily develop in response to carcinogens. High percentage of mammary adenocarcinomas (a large proportion acinar type) develop in multiparous females. Rare spontaneous myoepitheliomas arising from myoepithelial cells of various exocrine glands have been observed in The Jackson Laboratory substrains."
"Originally inbred at the Rockefeller Institute, AKR mice are widely used in cancer research for their high leukemia incidence (60-90%) and in immunology as a source of the Thy1.1 (theta AKR) antigen. AKR/J mice are viremic from birth, and express the ecotropic retrovirus AKV in all tissues. The hair interior defect (hid) mutation, a strain characteristic of AKR mice, causes alterations in hair development that is only evident microscopically. Adrenocortical lipid depletion (ald) in AKR mice is caused by a mutation in sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (Soat1), and leads to a truncated SOAT1 protein. AKR/J mice are relatively resistant to aortic lesion formation on a semi-synthetic high fat diet and are hyporesponsive to diets containing high levels of fat and cholesterol."
"BALB/c mice are particularly well known for the production of plasmacytomas following injection with mineral oil forming the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Although not all BALB/c substrains have been examined for plasmacytoma induction, substrains derived from the Andervont (An) lineage (which includes BALB/cByJ) typically are susceptible, while those descended from BALB/cJ are resistant (see: Potter M ,1985). Mammary tumor incidence is normally low but infection with mammary tumor virus by fostering to MMTV+ C3H mice dramatically increases tumor number and age of onset. BALB/c mice develop other cancers later in life including reticular neoplasms, primary lung tumors, and renal tumors. Rare spontaneous myoepitheliomas arising from myoepithelial cells of various exocrine glands have been observed in both BALB/cJ and BALB/cByJ substrains."
"C3H/HeJ mice are used as a general purpose strain in a wide variety of research areas including cancer, immunology and inflammation, sensorineural, and cardiovascular biology. C3H/HeJ mice and all other Jackson substrains are homozygous for the retinal degeneration 1 mutation (Pde6brd1), which causes blindness by weaning age. White belly spots, ranging in phenotype from a few white hairs to a defined spot are common in C3H/HeJ mice. There is also a high incidence of hepatomas in C3H mice (reportedly 72-91% in males at 14 months, 59% in virgin females, 30-38% in breeding females). Despite the lack of exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), virgin and breeding females may still develop some mammary tumors later in life. C3H/HeJ mice, fed an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 15% fat), fail to develop atherosclerotic aortic lesions in contrast to several highly susceptible strains of mice (e.g. C57BL/6J, Stock No. 000664; C57L/J, Stock No. 000668, C57BR/cdJ, Stock No. 000667, and SM/J, Stock No. 000687). C3H/HeJ mice spontaneously develop alopecia areata (AA) at a reported incidence of approximately 0.25% by 5 months of age. In older mice (12-18 months old), incidences as high as approximately 20% are reported. Females as young as 3-5 months can develop AA, but onset typically is delayed until after 6 months in males. Alopecia areata can be surgically-induced by grafting a small piece of skin from an older, donor animal with AA onto a younger, isogenic C3H/HeJ recipient."
"C57BL/6 is the most widely used inbred strain. It is commonly used as a general purpose strain and background strain for the generation of congenics carrying both spontaneous and induced mutations. Although this strain is refractory to many tumors, it is a permissive background for maximal expression of most mutations. C57BL/6J mice are used in a wide variety of research areas including cardiovascular biology, developmental biology, diabetes and obesity, genetics, immunology, neurobiology, and sensorineural research. C57BL/6J mice are also commonly used in the production of transgenic mice. Overall, C57BL/6 mice breed well, are long-lived, and have a low susceptibility to tumors. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells from C57BL/6J mice show greatly delayed senescence relative to BALB/c and DBA/2J. This is a dominant trait. Other characteristics include: 1) a high susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis; 2) a high incidence of microphthalmia and other associated eye abnormalities; 3) resistance to audiogenic seizures; 4) low bone density; 5) hereditary hydrocephalus (early reports indicate 1 - 4 %); 6) hairloss associated with overgrooming, 7) a preference for alcohol and morphine; 8) late-onset hearing loss; and 9) increased incidence of hydrocephalus and malocclusion."
"C57L/J mice are used widely in research as a general purpose strain. Mice have a high incidence of Hodgkin's-like reticulum cell neoplasm at 18 months of age and pituitary tumors in old multiparous females. C57L/J mice are highly susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and highly responsive to phytohemagglutinin. In addition, C57L/J mice are highly susceptible to developing atherosclerotic aortic lesions (4500 to 8000 um2 atherosclerotic aortic lesions/aortic cross-section) following 14 weeks on an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 15% fat) (Paigen et al. 1990). On a lithogenic diet, C57L/J mice develop gallstones as a result of abnormal regulation of cholesterol synthesis (Xua et al. 2004). C57L/J mice carry no detectable endogenous ecotropic MuLV DNA sequences."
"This strain was developed by MacDowell in 1921 from litter mates 58 and 52 of Miss Lathrop's stock. A mating of the same male but a different female gave rise to the commonly used C57BL group of strains. C58/J mice exhibit a high incidence of leukemia (>90% by one year of age). C58/J mice also exhibit an intermediate susceptibility to developing atherosclerotic aortic lesions (1670 to 1690 um2 atherosclerotic aortic lesions/aortic cross-section) following 14 weeks on an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 15% fat).
Bone marrow cells of C58/J mice (and mice of 9 other strains, excluding closely derived C57 strains) carry the interleukin 3 receptor, alpha chain; mutation 1 allele (Il3ram1) which confers non-responsiveness to Interleukin-3 (IL-3). IL-3 normally stimulates colony formation of multiple lineages of hematopoietic cells.
Other characteristics include: low social preference, poor performance in the T-maze, and overt motoric stereotypy. C58/J mice are homozygous for the high affinity aryl-hydrocarbon receptor; b-1 variant (Ahrb-1)."
"CBA/J inbred mice are widely used as a general purpose strain. CBA/J strain is the only CBA substrain that carries the Pde6brd1 mutation, which causes blindness by wean age. CBA/J mice are not histocompatible with the CBA/CaJ (Stock No. 000654) substrain (Green and Kaufer, 1965).
The CBA/J inbred mouse strain is used to study granulomatous experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (G-EAT), are relatively resistant to diet-induced atherosclerosis (Paigen et al. 1990), and develop a mild hearing loss late in life, with most of the hearing loss occurring in the higher frequencies (Sweet et al. 1988). Renal tubulointerstitial lesions have been observed in this strain at a high frequency (Rudofsky 1978). Some CBA/J mice spontaneously develop exocrine pancreatic insufficiency syndrome (Eppig and Leiter 1977, Leiter et al. 1977)."
"DBA/1J mice are widely used as a model for rheumatoid arthritis: immunization with type II collagen leads to the development of severe polyarthritis mediated by an autoimmune response. The incidence of collagen induced arthritis varies by experimental protocol, but is less than 100%. Similar to the human condition, mice with collagen-induced arthritis display synovitis and erosions of cartilage and bone. In addition, susceptibility in both humans and mice is linked to the expression of specific MHC class II molecules. DBA/1J mice show an intermediate susceptibility to developing atherosclerotic aortic lesions on an atherogenic diet. In response to challenge, DBA/1J mice develop immune-mediated nephritis characterized by proteinuria, glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial disease (Xie et al., 2004). There is high incidence of calcified lesions of the tongue with age. This strain is among the least responsive to phytohemagglutinin (Heiniger et al., 1975)."
"DBA/2J is a widely used inbred strain that is valuable in a large number of research areas, including cardiovascular biology, neurobiology, and sensorineural research. Its characteristics are often contrasted with those of the C57BL/6J inbred strain (Stock No. 000664). DBA/2J mice show a low susceptibility to developing atherosclerotic aortic lesions (20 to 350 um2 atherosclerotic aortic lesions /aortic cross-section) following 14 weeks on an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 15% fat). They also exhibit high-frequency hearing loss beginning roughly at the time of weaning/adolescence (between three to four weeks of age) and becoming severe by two to three months of age. The age related hearing loss 8 mutation arose spontaneously in DBA/2J between 1951 and 1975. This strain possesses three recessive alleles that cause progressive cochlear pathology initially affecting the organ of Corti. Decreasing anteroventral cochlear nucleus volume decreases and neuron loss parallel the progression of peripheral hearing loss. Young DBA/2J inbred mice are also susceptible to audiogenic seizures due to the asp2 mutation, however, this susceptibility decreases as animals reach adulthood. There is high incidence of calcareous pericarditis, and calcified lesions of the testes, tongue and skeletal muscle. This strain is among the least responsive to phytohemagglutinin (Heiniger et al., 1975)."
"The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) selected mouse line was bred for high blood ethanol (EtOH) concentration (BEC) following the limited access drinking in the dark (DID) test and is a genetic animal model of binge-like drinking."
Mice were selectively bred for high levels of voluntary consumption of water containing methamphetamine when it was offered versus plain tap water.
Mice selectively bred for high levels of locomotor sensitization induced by repeated treatment with 1 mg/kg of methamphetamine.
Mice were selectively bred for low levels of voluntary consumption of water containing methamphetamine when it was offered versus plain tap water.
Mice selectively bred for low levels of locomotor sensitization induced by repeated treatment with 1 mg/kg of methamphetamine.
"NZB/BlNJ mice display a number of autoimmune abnormalities including hemolytic anemia, elevated levels of immunoglobulin, anti-DNA antibodies, anti-thymocyte antibodies, and circulating immune complexes causing glomerulonephritis. F1 hybrids of NZB/BlNJ and NZW/LacJ (NZBWF1/J, Stock No. 100008) are widely used as a model for autoimmune disease resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. NZB/BlNJ mice, fed an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 15% fat), fail to develop atherosclerotic aortic lesions in contrast to several highly susceptible strains of mice (e.g. C57BL/6J, Stock No. 000664; C57L/J, Stock No. 000668, C57BR/cdJ, Stock No. 000667, and SM/J, Stock No. 000687)."
"PL/J mice show a moderate susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE) with late onset and high mortality. Reports of leukemia incidence vary from 50% in females and 19% in males to 80-90%. In addition to a low threshold to electroconvulsive seizures, PL/J mice are susceptible to handling and rhythmic tossing-induced seizures (Kitami et al. 2004) and very highly responsive to phytohemagglutinin (Heiniger et al. 1975)."
"SJL mice display a very high incidence of reticulum cell sarcomas resembling Hodgkin's disease by approximately one year of age. Sarcomas first appear in the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and later in the spleen, liver, thymus and other lymph nodes. Most of the tumors are mixed-cell types classified as type B reticulum cell neoplasms, but a few are type A histiocytomas. This strain is also characterized by extreme aggression in males and its susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) for multiple sclerosis research. SJL/J mice develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a splice-site mutation in the Dysferlin gene. This Dysfim allele has been shown to result in decreased levels of dysferlin protein in SJL/J mice and makes this strain a good model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. This spontaneous myopathy is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength corresponding with an increase in muscle pathology including muscle fibers with central nuclei, size variation, splitting, inflammatory infiltrate, necrosis, and eventual replacement of muscle fiber with fat. While muscle weakness can be detected as early as three weeks of age the greatest pathology occurs after six months of age. SJL/J mice have also been shown to have an increased rate of muscle regeneration after injury when compared to BALB/c mice. Due to a mutation in Ceacam1 SJL/J mice are resistant to infection by certain strains of mouse hepatitis virus MHV-4."
"SWR/J mice are used widely in research as a general purpose strain. Aging mice exhibit a high incidence of lung and mammary gland tumors. They also develop extreme polydipsia and polyuria (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) with increasing age. SWR/J mice are highly susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Germline deletion of about 50% of T-cell receptor V beta-chain gene segments and a T-cell receptor V alpha polymorphism are responsible for the resistance of SWR/J mice to collagen type II-induced arthritis. SWR/J mice show an intermediate susceptibility to developing atherosclerotic aortic lesions (1670 to 1690 um2 atherosclerotic aortic lesions/aortic cross-section) following 14 weeks on an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 15% fat). SWR/J mice have been recommended for generation and propogation of transgenic mice because they are high responders to exogenous hormones, have large and prominant pronuclei with good resistance to lysis following microinjection, and are genetically well-defined. SWR/J mice may also be used as controls for comparison to the autoimmune diabetic NOD/ShiLtJ mice (Stock No. 001976), especially for experiments examining the aberrant immune functions of NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Both NOD and SWR/J mice are derived from Swiss mice. SWR/J are in some cases more suitable than random bred Swiss ICR mice because of their genetic uniformity. Unlike NOD/ShiLtJ mice they are not immunocompromised, and they are genetically very different from NOD. SWR/J mice appear to be the only inbred carrying the allele Soaa (Taster) characterized by avoidance of sucrose octaacetate solutions at low concentrations (< 10-3M)."